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    运河城市与海港城市文化的融合---天津城市的性格
      时间:2009-1-7      来源:新浪博客    编辑:admin【字体: 】【收藏】【关闭
          “天津”这个地名出现于明朝永乐年间,永乐二年(公元1404),天津作为畿辅要地正式设卫〔卫所是明朝的军事建置〕,于是为朱棣赐名“天津”,意思就是天子渡河的地方。故也有“天津卫”之称。
          一座城市的性格离不开其地理位置,环境和历史渊源的塑造。天津的母亲河-----海河以及河岸码头的就了天津人独特的性格:既有北方人的一些共有缺点:比如懒惰、好吹牛等,也有自己独特的地方,给外地人印象较深的有热情、爱面子、不思进取和不守规矩。
          天津现有人口约1000万,面积近12000平方公里的土地上(天津市区约占百分之二)。一般人对几个城市的印象大约如此:从前因为北京是“天子脚下”,所以封建、半封建气息浓厚;上海则是有名的“十里洋场”,殖民地、半殖民地气息浓厚;天津则是折中和混合型:华洋杂处,半封建半殖民地混合型的气息浓厚。从天津旧城里严整方正的四合院与旧租界地争新斗奇的小洋楼并存,就可以大致体会到
          天津初时,“民风相厚淳良”。明代开始,南方军士北迁,“杂以闽、广、吴、楚、齐、梁之民,风俗不甚淳一”;由于天津是军卫之地,屯守的士兵将领拖家带口驻扎,所以又形成 ‘勇武好斗’的民风。至清代,天津又逐步转化成为北方商业重镇,因而“民多以贾趋利”,“俗尚奢华”。第一次世界大战后,从开租界,到成为中央直辖市又逐渐变化至今……。
          天津人讲究吃,清末民初,有大饭庄七十余家;到20世纪30年代,天津的饭庄、饭馆多达三百余家。天津菜以河海两鲜为主,从前讲究“八大碗”,美食则为“鸭翅(鱼翅)席”、“燕(燕窝)翅席”。天津仅小吃花色就有500种,但知名度最高的,是狗不理包子,与十八街大麻花、耳朵眼炸糕,并称三绝。
          说到三绝,在民间工艺品中,有线板手绘的杨柳青年画;“泥人张”栩栩如生的彩塑人物,已由张明山传到第五代张乃英;“风筝魏”的风筝。时鲜中也有三绝:银鱼、紫蟹、铁雀。
          从衣食住行上,可看到天津传统文化的特色:运河城市与海港城市文化的化合。应该说作为一个在码头城市里谋生的人,天津人好脸(同时也爱护短),好打哈哈取乐。盛产以语言表达见长的名人;同时沉淀在城市文化和城市性格中可以称之为基因缺陷的东西也一直在历史的脉络中若隐若现,比如长期形成的四平八稳、小富即安的心理惰性;比如时常出现的一叶障目、过分琐碎、不看大势、牢骚太盛、捕风捉影的粗糙;再加上计划经济甚至小农经济根深蒂固的影响,怕冒尖、爱削尖的顽症形成的那种不宜于创新、扼制一流的氛围。这些都使天津的城市竞争力直接或间接地受到影响。
          有一个关于天津人的段子,说大学宿舍里住了六个人,湖南人晚上点蜡把书翻得哗哗响,影响大家休息。没几天,两个东北人也买来蜡点上,自顾自地看书、聊天、打牌;广东人挂起厚厚的帘子,自己干自己的事,或是睡觉,或是看书;天津人则有一搭没一搭地跟他们聊几句,困了就侧过脸,用被子蒙上头,尽力睡自己的,大不了说一句“我睡觉了,你们别聊天了”。也不管他们听不听,自己努力去睡觉,或许直到别人聊完天,打上呼噜了,他还没睡着。他心里虽然不舒服,却没有想过要改变这种不合理的现状,也没有认为别人侵害了他应有的利益,要据理力争。他没有“你横,我比你更横”的东北人的劲儿,也没有广东人私下里的狠劲儿。广东人可能表面上不说湖南人,但心里记着湖南人欠了他的,非得在别的事上捞回来。东北人心里舒坦的是“你吵,我比你还热闹!笨商旖蛉巳套乓欢亲悠,没有让那些损害他利益的人觉得惭愧,也没有设法去改变现状。
          遇着不公平,天津人不是寻找真正的公平,而是寻找让自己能够接受的方式。这种文化产生不了有益的竞争,也就激发不了那种沿袭了多少年的惰性,最终难以促进经济的健康、有序发展。
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