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    全球城市竞争力榜单:纽约居首 中国21城入围百强
      中国城市文化网  时间:2017-10-31      来源:每日经济新闻    收藏本页

    全球城市竞争力与可持续竞争力2017-2018排名

    2017年10月30日,世界城市日—全球城市竞争力论坛在广州举行,会议由联合国人居署主办,广州市社会科学院和广州城市战略研究院承办,中国社会科学院城市与竞争力中心协办。

    会上,中国社会科学院(财经院)与联合国人居署共同发布《全球城市竞争力报告2017-2018:房价,改变城市世界》(以下简称《报告》)。该《报告》由中国社会科学院财经战略研究院院长助理、中国社科院—联合国人居署联合课题组首席城市经济学家倪鹏飞教授与联合国人居署、中国社科院—联合国人居署联合课题组首席城市经济学家MarcoKamiya牵头,全球众多城市竞争力专家共同携手,历时一年有余联合完成。本次报告授权《每日经济新闻》中文摘要首发和《南华早报》英文摘要首发。

    《报告》称,测度全球1007个城市的经济竞争力指数,结果刷新人们以往对城市排名的认知?萍即葱轮行某鞘杏胄滦司锰逯行某鞘锌即蚱乒逃腥虺鞘懈窬,进入最具城市竞争力行列。

    从排名来看,全球城市经济竞争力指数十强分别是:纽约、洛杉矶、新加坡、伦敦、旧金山、深圳、东京、圣何塞、慕尼黑、达拉斯。

    此次《报告》属于全球城市报告系列的第二本,重点关注了全球城市经济竞争力和可持续竞争力,并以“房价,改变城市世界”为主题,阐述了全球房地产市场概况、房价与城市竞争力的关系等。

    中国21城入围百强

    城市功能、定位各异,竞争能力各有所长所短,构建科学合理的指标体系是评价的关键。按照指标最小化原则,《报告》构建了城市经济竞争力与可持续竞争力指标体系。

    其中经济竞争力指的是城市当前创造价值、获取经济租金的能力,课题组使用原创的理论与方法,从产出的角度,使用经济密度指标与经济增量指标,测度了全球1007个城市的竞争力指数。

    2016年全球城市经济竞争力指数十强:纽约、洛杉矶、新加坡、伦敦、旧金山、深圳、东京、圣何塞、慕尼黑、达拉斯。

    其中,北美洲占5席,占据半壁江山,亚洲占据3席,欧洲占2席。

    从国别来看,全球城市经济竞争力美国优势明显,中国迅速崛起。美国城市整体优势明显,且发展水平较为均衡,前十强占5席、前二十强占9席,前100强占36席。

    中国顶级城市表现良好,整体竞争力水平提升迅速,一些强二线城市表现较为亮眼,除深圳进入全球十强外,香港、上海、广州、北京进入前20强,21个城市进入前100强,这反映了中国城市发展已经从“中心聚集”进入“扩散外溢”的较高阶段。

    《报告》指出,在中国当前发展水平下,城市整体竞争力在全球城市体系中取得这样的位置,表现实属优异,但是也应看到,中国整体城市之间差距较大。

    中国社科院—联合国人居署联合课题组首席城市经济学家倪鹏飞对《每日经济新闻》记者表示:“信息科技中心和新兴经济体中心城市崛起,打破了全球城市竞争力体系格局,刷新了人们的认识。特别是以前最具竞争力城市多为金融中心,现在最具竞争力城市必须既是金融中心,也是科技创新的中心!

    另外,可持续竞争力指的是城市的要素与环境的状况,《报告》选取人力资本潜力、经济活力、科技创新、社会包容、生态环境、营商环境、基础设施、全球联系等指标,测度了全球1035个城市的可持续竞争力指数。

    2016年全球可持续竞争力十强分别为纽约、伦敦、东京、波士顿、新加坡、苏黎世、首尔、休斯敦、巴黎、芝加哥。十强中,欧美亚城市三足鼎立;在全球城市可持续竞争力百强城市中,欧洲与北美城市在数量上占据绝对优势。

    从城市群看,美国、德国、英国城市群中进入可持续竞争力百强的中心城市比重较高。

    研究认为,以金砖国家为代表的新兴市场国家城市基础设施正迎头赶上,特别是中国城市普遍基础设施已经追上发达国家。中国有9个城市进入可持续竞争力百强,依次为北京、香港、上海、深圳、广州、台北、南京、天津、厦门。

    新型全球城市正在形成

    从全球城市格局来看,全球城市聚集也是当今全球经济空间差异和变化的综合反映,研究发现,三条经线划分了全球城市人口和经济的差异化集聚。

    这三条经线分别是东经20度、西经100度和东经110度,经线一侧的经济密度较高,另一侧则呈现断崖式分布格局。同时,经济密度最大、收入水平较高的城市集中分布在北美与欧亚地区并呈现出一小一大的新月型集聚区。

    在全球城市联系方面,《报告》认为,信息科技和特大城市主导全球城市软联系。这种软联系相较以物流交通为主的硬联系对城市的影响越来越深!侗ǜ妗废允,欧洲作为软联系中心主导全球城市的对内和对外联系,非洲最低且与全球差距较大。软联系相对于硬联系更广泛、更不平衡、分化更明显。

    研究发现,信息科技日益成为全球城市发展的首要动力。首先,信息科技使得全球城市联系由间接联系变为直接联系,由个别联系变为全面联系,由松散联系变为紧密联系,由慢速联系变为瞬时联系,从高成本联系变为低成本联系。其次,信息科技正在改变全球城市网络体系的重心性,总体上正由沿海地区向内陆地区转移,由欧美地区向亚洲地区转移。第三,信息科技正在改变全球城市的空间形态。

    城市发展动力、集聚、联系的变化催生新型全球城市的形成!侗ǜ妗啡衔,新型全球城市形成的事实证据包括:首先,科技与金融正在主导全球经济,占据全球价值链的主要部分。其次,从全球企业影响力来看,信息科技企业的影响力正变得越来越大。最后,科技中心城市在全球城市体系中的地位不断上升,科技创新指数越高的城市,其人均GDP也就越高,相应地,可持续竞争力和经济竞争力也越强。

    另外,《报告》指出,目前的全球城市体系既不是由产业垂直分工所决定的等级体系,也不是由产业水平分工所决定的网络体系,而是一种链网体系,是等级体系和网络体系的结合物。

    房价过高或过低都不利于城市竞争力

    此次《报告》以“房价,改变城市世界”为主题,重点研究了全球房地产市场概况,还从实证研究的角度探讨了房价对城市竞争力的影响。

    《报告》认为,全球城市高房价区域表现为环大洋的“三点四带”,即高房价区域集中在北美、西欧与东亚三点,在西经120度、西经80度、东经20度和东经110度处延伸。各国邻近边界的城市群已融合为跨国的大型城市群,高房价区域对距离较远的城市形成抑制,呈现迁移效应。

    值得注意的是,《报告》发现了城市房价存在的马太效应。也就是说,当城市房地产市场出现分化之后,其分化程度通常将持续扩大。作为马太效应的长期结果,全球城市房地产呈现较强的两极分化态势。

    同时,《报告》也认为城市房地产的马太效应并非一成不变,而是在不同的经济发展阶段和城市发展程度存在差异。处于经济发达阶段的城市的马太效应较弱,不发达阶段的城市的马太效应较强。整体来看,发展中经济体的高房价城市存在较高的房地产泡沫,而发达经济体的高房价城市的房地产泡沫相对较小。

    就房价对城市竞争力的影响而言,《报告》指出,城市的相对房价与其竞争力呈倒“U”型的变化趋势,过高或者过低的房价都不利于城市竞争力的提升。

    基于上述发现,主题报告建议,为了实现可持续的城市化,地方政府在城市化进程中应注意在城市规划方面应遵循充足的空间、高密度、土地的复合使用、社会融合、避免功能单一化等原则,同时需要制定一个健全的财务计划。另外,法律规章制度有利于塑造良好的城市形态和特点,政府需要发挥法律规章在城市发展中的作用。

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