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    日本企业的“隐瞒链”文化
      中国城市文化网  时间:2017-11-2    www.szwangqi.com  来源:www.szwangqi.com    收藏本页

      从三菱、铃木被曝涉嫌篡改燃油效率等数据,到此次神户制钢造假事件。近几年的时间中,那个曾经让无数汽车爱好者心驰神往的汽车强国日本渐渐露出了颓势。一次又一次被曝出的丑闻虽然看起来各自独立毫无联系,却一步步将日本汽车企业百年以来树立的“诚信”二字砸得粉碎。伴随着这些知名汽车企业和相关制造行业的相继落马,这场席卷全日本的失信风波似乎才刚刚掀起了一角。

      

      2016-2017,丢掉招牌的两年

      神户制钢成立于1905年,是日本第三大钢铁联合企业。它的业务领域主要包括:钢铁、焊接材料、铝、铜、钛制品等等。作为汽车行业重要的原材料供应商,神户制钢的客户遍布日本本土、亚洲、美洲、欧洲等多个国家和地区。像我们能说得上名字的日本汽车品牌,几乎都或多或少的使用了神户制钢提供的原材料。就是这样一家全球500强的企业,却在今年8月公司内部调查时暴露了部分铝、铜制品出厂数据被篡改,将不达标产品出售的行为。

      

      今年9月,日产汽车因被曝出使用没有审核资格的员工来负责整车检查,近日向日本交通省申请召回38款车型,共计约为116万辆。而紧随其后,斯巴鲁社长也在10月27日公布其群马县的两家工厂都存在使用“正在培训之中的员工”来进行新车最后检查的情况。预计将会召回包括“翼豹”在内的多款斯巴鲁车型,以及丰田委托生产的“86”车型,总计约为25.5万辆。

      除此之外,还有去年三菱、铃木涉嫌篡改燃油效率数据的事件,与持续多年的高田安全气囊安全隐患事件。在2016-2017年期间,日本本土企业出现了如此多起“造假”的丑闻,其中还有不少严重影响了产品的安全性。这不由得让我们惊呼,曾经的那个以“工匠精神”著称的日本到底怎么了?

      “诚信文化”成了压死骆驼的最后一根稻草

      和美国鼓励创新,敢于冒险的企业文化有所不同,日本的文化从根源上就显得保守、务实。这也是为什么“诚信”这两个字在日本国民心中的分量甚至超越了生命。

      从出生开始,父母就会教导小朋友诚实守信,从幼儿园到大学毕业,学校和家长在传授日本年轻人“知识”的同时,也将诚信作为立足之本深深地印在了大和民族的血脉里。走入社会,这种以诚信为本的做人准则也会让所有人都非常重视自己的信誉,因为一旦失信,所要承担的后果是不可想象的。轻则亲友疏离,重则遭到全社会的唾弃。

      

      而日本诚信文化除了要求做人诚实守信之外,在企业中有着“从一而终”的潜规则。笔者身边的一位日本朋友就曾经向笔者吐槽,很不理解周围的同事为什么跳槽率那么高,慢一点的3至5年,快一些的甚至3至5个月就会换一家公司。在她看来,想得到更好的发展和待遇,忠诚度是首位的(甚至在某些时候高于个人能力和合作意识)。跳槽并不是完全被禁止,但像美国公司或是中国公司这样频繁跳槽是不多见的。而且尽管名义上日本已经取消了曾经的“终身雇佣制”,但仍然有许多企业将不主动裁员作为公司准则之一,所以员工也用不离不弃、尽忠职守对公司予以回报;蛐硎鞘艿饺毡菊焦贝竺图页脊叵档挠跋,不少的日本企业家将公司视为“家族”,如果有人背叛了自己的“家族”,那这样的人也难以得到其他“家族”的信任。

      如此根深蒂固的诚信文化,按理来说只会让企业越做越强,越走越远。为什么却导致大量日本企业欲盖弥彰,隐瞒不报。甚至上下串通,造假舞弊呢?三菱汽车社长相川哲郎是这样对媒体说的。

      

      “因为我们是与日产联合开发K-Car,从管理者的角度深知必须要达到燃油效率的目标,否则我们将难以面对日产公司,也无法在跟其他车企的竞争中获得优势。为了达到这个目标,管理层抱有相当强烈的期待和信心,这些压力就直接由下属部门承担了。当员工们发现事实上目前的技术难以达到目标时,这个问题已经无法修正。在高层的期许与对公司的忠诚双重压力下,他们走投无路就会选择篡改数据!

      暴露只是时间的问题

      上述的大部分事件有一个共通点,那就是它们几乎都是集体性、长期性的行为。

      神户制钢副社长梅原尚人对媒体表示:“遗憾的是,经过缜密的调查,这样的数据篡改事件并非首次也不是个人行为。神户制钢旗下的部分产品从十年前开始就一直在篡改数据。而且此次的事件牵涉包括神户制钢高层在内的数十名员工!

      高层会帮助底层员工隐瞒篡改数据的行为,这听起来有些可笑对吧?但事实就是如此。我们可以举个例子:员工A一时疏忽填错了一批原材料的数据,该批材料却因为双方的信任正常的售出了。因为担心更正数据会暴露之前的错误,员工A只好将错就错继续用错误的数据和材料。这件事无意中被他的上司B发现,上司B认为虽然员工A犯错在先,但自己也难逃失察之责。而且事已至此为了避免再生事端,只好帮助员工A隐瞒。而上司B的问题最终也被高管C发现,为了避免社长和董事会的问责,高管C无奈加入成为了帮凶。自此,一条串满了“蚂蚱”的“隐瞒链”就诞生了。

      

      人无完人,难免犯错。但知错,并且及时改正才是对自己负责、对公司负责、对所有客户负责?墒,在面对犯错后极高的负罪感和几乎被社会抛弃的结局,无数的人在错误面前选择了隐瞒。十年来,神户制钢就是依靠着这样一条条的“隐瞒链”将一个巨大的错误埋在所有人的心里。而能够想象到的是,在日本近乎病态的“诚信文化”背后,像这样的企业绝对不止神户制钢一家。

      整个日本制造业正面临着一场即将到来的灭顶之灾,神户制钢也好、高田气囊也罢,都只是这场灾难之前的一点征兆而已。

      如果还有未来,该何去何从

      回顾上述诸多事件不难看出,越是试图继续隐瞒,往往下场越惨。高田的拖延战术虽然成功的将问题延缓了15年,最终换来的却是宣告破产,名誉扫地。相比之下,像神户制钢这样自我审查,主动公开问题的企业,虽然还是免不了要进行道歉、赔偿甚至承担法律责任,但在消费者和客户心中他们仍有挽回信誉的可能。

      

      无论是原材料造价的供应商,还是采购了这些材料的车企。主动发现问题、主动承认错误、主动提供解决方案和主动采取监管措施是解决诚信问题的四个基本步骤。

      作为不直接面对消费者的供应商,应当主动与相关车企沟通赔偿方案和召回方案,勇于承担由于自己的问题带来的损失。只有帮助车企留住消费者,才能让自己留住更多的客户;而对于车企来说,虽然他们也是“造假事件”当中的受害者,但站在消费者的角度来看,他们同样也是“加害者”。不推诿,不喊冤,实事求是的和消费者换位思考,才能让消费者与车企换位思考。

      既是机遇,也是警示

      长久以来,“日本制造”四个字代表着追求卓越和重视品质,但制造业的丑事频出也让这个拥有两万余家百年以上企业的国家站在了风口浪尖。当年,日系汽车在美系德系的夹攻之下艰难前行,用实打实的品质和价格换来的金字招牌,在遭受了一波又一波打击之后充分的展现了什么叫做“站得越高,摔得越狠”。

      

      如今,我国的自主品牌汽车也已经从原本的“能跑就行”逐渐变得注重品质和工艺,此次日本车企的集体陷落既是一个千载难逢的超车时机,也是一记振聋发聩的警钟。希望日本车企能够痛定思痛,坚强的从失败中站起来,也希望中国车企能够从这些事件之中学会反思,避免重蹈覆辙。


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